Historians and archeologists are trying to trace the ancient History of Hunza within the inscriptions carved on rocks near Ganish village. However, these inscriptions have no clue regarding the local settlements and appear just like a Guest Book for ancient travelers who traveled from Central Asia and China to India. The origin of the Burusho people and their language is a mystery that may never be solved.
Inside the historical accounts the regional people relate their origin with the soldiers of Alexander the excellent (July 356 BC to June 10, 323 BC). It is known that in 326 B.C if the forces of Alexander the excellent was on way back and passed through Hunza, five from the soldiers becoming ill, lagged behind in Hunza. These soldiers made this valley their house. However, here you go also not known that before their arrival there is any human settlement or not. If there was no human settlement inside the valley then, here it is not clear that where these soldiers married? It is also claimed that Hunza was not in the route from the soldiers of Alexander.
Based on another theory three (3) generals in Alexander’s army have married Persian women. The generals betrayed Alexander by giving the Persians his plans. When Alexander heard about the betrayal he sought to take revenge, but the generals, wives along with a band of many soldiers fled. The valley of Hunza is believed to get been their valley of refuge due to the remote and secure location. Chances are the Hunza valley was already sparsely inhabited if the Macedon generals arrived. Certainly these tough fighting warriors made quick work of slaughtering the original inhabitants of Hunza. Though this really is purely speculation, it is actually highly probable. The desolate rocky valley could not have access to supported the Macedonians unless some farms had been slowly built by others over the preceding centuries.
People also narrate that this earlier settlers migrated in the valley either from central Asia or from Shigar. It is stated that, after the Brusho were occupying major elements of the current day Northern Areas which had been called Brushal but latter the invasion of Shins pushed them to Hunza, Nagar and Yasin Valleys. It is stated that human settlement was first started in Nagar valley where people migrated to Hunza. If it is true then there is great chance that the people migrated this area through Shigar. Major tribes of Altit migrated Hunza from Hakhashal; an older settlement near Hopper Nagar.
In accordance with Biddulph , Brushu people conquered Hunza in 120 B.C. E, after which they captured Shigar and Baltistan. The word “Brushal” comes from Brushu, which is ancient name of Peshawar. In Tibetan history Hunza is known as as Bruza and also the people of the area were called Burushos. During 11th century A.D., the shins invaded the location and pushed Buroshos to Hunza and Yasin Valleys. In Hunza they settled Ganish, Altit and Baltit villages and up to 18th century the local individuals were restricted within these 3 fortified villages. However, Dr Ahmed Hassan Dhani writes that the people of Hunza proper are part of Dard race of the Yashkun caste and have nothing to do with the Huns.
In another account it is said that the White Huns – warrior tribes from Central Asia – conquered the Kabul Valley, the Indus valley and also the Northern Areas in early 6th century A.D. They ruled through several local Shina and Burushiski kings called “Rajas”, who were subordinate to the Hun Emperor. It is also stated that the original ancestors in the Hunzu Kuts were called Moghul. While rwlgfw from the Hunza valley, their leader Mughal Tithum, was injured when kicked by a horse along with to stay there in good care of his most trusted men. After recovering he established the communities of Baltit, Altit and Ganish. However, today the Hunza people are from diversified background. People from central Asia, Baltistan, Diamer and many other areas migrated and settled within the valley.